The seventeenth century was the most turbulent period in modern British history,
and despite its isolation, the history of Radnorshire was shaped by these events.
To understand the history of Quakers in the county, we need to appreciate the impact
of early Quakers in England. Many individuals from all classes of society coalesced
into a religious sect that was determined to change society. During the Interregnum,
they were a militant proselytizing movement, yet within a few weeks of the Restoration,
they declared their peace testimony; although suffering greater oppression, they
never used violence. After the Toleration Act of 1689, Quakers retreated into an
exclusive sect and became isolated from the wider community.
George Fox, the acknowledged founder of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)
was born in Fenny Drayton, Leicestershire. His father, a weaver, was churchwarden,
in a parish church with a strong Puritan tradition. George was apprenticed to a
local shoemaker who was also a cattle and sheep dealer. At the age of nineteen,
George became troubled with the state of society, he left his job and family and
traveled throughout England, lodging with people who shared his concern. He read
his Bible diligently, but could not accept the authority of the Scriptures, nor could
he accept the teachings of the established church:
But as I had forsaken all the priests, so I left the separate preachers also, and
those called the most experienced people; for I saw there was none among them all
that could speak to my condition. And when all my hopes in them and in all men were
gone, so that I had nothing outwardly to help me, nor could tell what to do, then,
oh then, I heard a voice which said, ‘There is one, even Christ Jesus, that can speak
to thy condition’, and when I heard it my heart did leap for joy.
In 1652, George met with the Seekers in Westmoreland, they were Puritans, and
some still attended their parish church, but others separated and worshiped in their
own chapel. He also met Margaret, wife of Thomas Fell, landowner, circuit judge
and Member of Parliament; despite his early doubts, Judge Fell allowed his home,
Swarthmoor Hall, to be used by this new sect; he never became a Quaker, but he did
protect them in the early years.
After these meetings, some of the Seekers in Westmoreland and the neighbouring
counties were recruited to speak the Truth in towns and villages in England and Wales.
Known as the Valiant Sixty, one of them, Thomas Holmes, visited Llananno in 1654
and was able to convince some parishioners, probably because of the Puritan tradition
in the area. In 1641, some parishioners in Llanbister had petitioned Sir Robert
Harley of Brampton Bryan, a Puritan, for a preacher who could speak Welsh. Holmes
reported: but most are Welsh, and some cannot understand English. Thomas Holmes
died 2nd August 1666, age 39, and is buried at Friends Burial Ground, Pontymoil.
Members of the Valiant Sixty were zealous radicals, intent on transforming
the nation and they met many former soldiers who had become disenchanted with conditions
in the Commonwealth. Some had belonged to radical groups now suppressed by the Army
Council or the Blasphemy Act of 1650; they included Levellers, Diggers, and Ranters.
Levellers were a radical republican movement, they argued for an egalitarian society
with a reformed legal system and voting rights for freeholders. Diggers believed
the English people had been deprived of their rights by the Normans and felt the
land should be a common treasury for all and returned to the people as in Saxon times.
Ranters offended people by their extravagant and licentious behaviour. The influence
of these groups can be seen in early Quaker pamphlets:
We are not for names, nor men, nor titles of Government, nor are we for this party
nor against another… but we are for justice and mercy and truth and true freedom,
that these may be exalted in our nation, and that goodness, righteousness, meekness,
temperance, peace and unity with God, and with one another, that these things may
Unwholesome words they are not free to use; nor to men will they give flattering
titles, because the fear of God is in them; neither can they bow to the spirit of
pride in men, nor stand uncovered before them, as they do when they approach God
in prayer, because His honour ought not be given to another.
Quakers addressed people in plain speech, they would not acknowledge title or rank
and refused to remove their hats to any person, they would not swear on oath or pay
church tithes. These were their testimonies and Quakers claimed they were based
upon the Scriptures, but many people thought they were political and politics were
the prerogative of the aristocracy and gentry. Quakers were also in dispute with
other Dissenters and the Church, they were militant, they taunted priests, interrupted
sermons, and in debates, they ignored the accepted standards. They angered people
and were deemed to be a threat to the Protestant faith, magistrates showed little
sympathy and Quakers were often punished for their behaviour, rather than their beliefs.
John Evelyn visited Ipswich prison on the 8 July 1656:
I had the curiosity to visit some Quakers here in prison; a new fanatic sect, of
dangerous principles, who show no respect to any man, magistrate, or other, and seem
a melancholy, proud sort of people, and exceedingly ignorant.
In 1656, Goley Morris of Lower Cilgu, Llanyre, gave a small parcel of land for
burials; it is thought the site was abandoned after local Quakers emigrated to Pennsylvania.
There is no lease or conveyance. A document of 1785 stated:
The Burial Ground in Llanyre, being gift of Goley Morris to friends, but no writing
appears, which hath been in possession of friends time immemorial.
Another document dated 1893 states:
All that piece or parcel of land and burial ground known as The corner adjoining
the Allt situate in the parish of Llanyre.
George Fox, accompanied by Thomas Holmes, Edward Edwards and John ap John visited
Radnorshire in 1657:
And so we passed up into Wales through Montgomeryshire and up into Radnorshire, where
there was a meeting like a leaguer for a multitude. And I walked a little off from
the meeting whilst the people were a-gathering, and there came John ap John to me,
a Welshman; and I bid him go up to the people, and if he had anything upon him from
the Lord to speak to the people in Welsh he might, and thereby gather them more together.
Then there came Morgan Watkins to me who was loving to Friends and, says he, ‘The
people lie like a leaguer and the gentry of the country are come in.’ So I bid him
go up to the meeting, for I had a great travail upon me for the salvation of the
Morgan Watkins, a Welsh speaker, lived at Wigmore Grange, and later, Eyton
Hall, Leominster. An early convert, he debated religious issues with Vavasor Powell
at Knighton and wrote several pamphlets. Meetings were held at his home and the
homes of other Friends near Leominster until a meeting house was built in 1687. Morgan
Watkins traveled extensively preaching the Quaker message and was committed to Wycombe
Prison in 1665. He was in prison with Thomas Ellwood, a former secretary to John
Milton and he made several references to Watkins in his autobiography. It is thought
that Morgan Watkins died in Gatehouse Prison, London.
Peter Price from Glascwm was convinced after hearing George Fox preach
at this meeting, a former soldier and now living in Presteign, he was Justice of
the Peace and member of a County Committee.
He published a pamphlet in 1683 The Unequal Unyoked.
1659 – On the 20th. Of the Month called February, the Friends being peaceably and
religiously assembled in their own hired House, were insulted by several soldiers
of the Irish Brigage, headed by a Serjeant, and attended by a rabble of rude Boys
with Clubs; they forced the Friends out of the Meeting place, and gave them many
Blows and other abuses, and when the Serjeant was asked, By what Authority be so
acted? He laid hold of his sword, saying, ‘By this Authority’. After the like manner
were several other Meetings broke up about the same Time.
In this year also, Richard Moore, John Ap Evan David and John Berks, all of Radnorshire,
for 6s. 8d demanded of them towards the Repairs of the Steeple-houses, had goods
taken from them to the Value of 14s. 4d.
1660 – John David of Radnorshire, for 5s 2d demanded for Tithes, had taken from him
a Bullock worth £2 6s 8d.
Margaret Watson of Llannano, Widow, for 4s demanded for Tithes, had a Cow taken worth
Miles Sykes of the same, for 3s Claimed for Tithes, had a Cow taken from him worth
£3. This was a poor man who had several small children, and only that Cow.
In 1660; In Radnorshire, the several Persons following, for a Fine of 9s. Each,
imposed for absence from National Worship, had their Goods taken by Distress.
£ s d
From Richard Moore, Goods worth 1 4 0
David Crowther 15 0
James Miles 2 6 0
John Bevan David 1 6 0
Owen David 1 0 0
Henry Clayton 2 0 0
Edward Evans 2 16 0
David Meredith 1 16 0
David Powell 1 16 0
For Fines of £4 10s Taken £18 3s 8d
From Edward Sikes, for a fine of 13s for absence from publick worship, Goods worth
£1 10s. There were also thirty-two persons excommunicated for the same Cause.
By 1660, many people in England and Wales were disenchanted and rejoiced when King
Charles II returned to England. The insurrection of Fifth Monarchists in London
was quickly crushed by the army and four thousand Quakers were arrested as a precaution.
Leaders of the Fifth Monarchists were executed and Quakers, anxious to stress their
peaceful nature, delivered their Peace Testimony to King Charles II on the 21st November
Our principle is, and our practices have always been, to seek peace, and ensue it,
and follow after righteousness and the knowledge of God, seeing the good and welfare,
and doing that which tends to the peace of all… That Spirit of Christ, by which we
are guided, is not changeable, so as once to command us from a thing as evil and
again to move unto it; and we do certainly know and so testify to the world that
theSpirit of Christ, which leads us into all truth, will never move us to fight and
war against any man with outward weapons, neither for the kingdom of Christ nor for
the kingdoms of this world…
Quakers were exonerated, but their suffering increased during the Restoration.
Their aim was to revive primitive Christianityh and change society; their meetings
were held in public without a priest and any person could pray or preach the gospel.
To impose conformity, Parliament passed five Acts associated with Edward
Hyde, Earls of Clarendon, and known as the Clarendon Code. Since publishing the
peace testimony, Quakers accepted their suffering without resistance:
I saw several poor creatures carried by, by constables for being at conventicle.
They go like lambs without any resistance. I would to God they would either conform,
or be more wise, and not get catched.
For this I can say, I never since played the coward, but joyfully entered prisons
as palaces, telling mine enemies to hold me there as long as they could: and in
the prison house I sung praises to my God, and esteemed the bolts and locks put upon
me as jewels, and in the Name of the eternal God I always got the victory, for they
could keep me there no longer than the determined time of my God.
George Fox visited Hereford in 1663:
And from thence I passed into Wales again, into Radnorshire. And on the First-day
we had a great meeting and on the Third-day we held another meeting up in Wales.
And so when we came to the meeting a noise was amongst Friends that the watches
were set and they had taken some Friends that were coming to the meeting; so I was
moved to pass another way, and so missed them. And so after the meeting was done
we passed away peaceably; and those Friends were set at liberty that was taken up
by the watchmen, being neighbours. And the Lord’s name and standard were set up
there and many hundreds there are in Wales that are settled under Christ Jesus’ teaching
that has bought them.
George Fox visited Shrewsbury in 1668:
where we had a precious meeting, and the mayor and his officers, hearing of my being
in town, they met together to consult what to do against me; for they said the great
Quaker of England was come to town and therefore they took counsel together to imprison
me, but some of them opposed it, so the Lord confounded them. And from thence we
passed into Radnorshire, where we had many precious meetings and we settled Monthly
George Fox married Margaret, widow of Judge Thomas Fell, in 1669, and renounced
any claim on her estate. Described as a Gentleman of Swarthmoor, he continued to
spend most of his time in London, whilst Margaret spent her time at Swarthmoor, although
George spent periods at Swarthmoor in 1676 and 1679, and Margaret visited him in
London on three occasions.
In some areas, Quakers were buried in the parish churchyard, but there were
occasions when funerals were interrupted by unruly mobs and many Quakers preferred
to be buried in an orchard or garden. However, it became necessary to purchase land
and Fox urged Quakers to purchase land which would be a testimony against superstitious
idolizing of places for that purpose. Quakers refused to consecrate burial grounds
or buildings; they insisted that their meeting houses were not a church; members
were the church. George Fox wrote again in 1682:
And all that say: That we bury like dogs – because we do not have superfluous and
needless things on our coffin and do not go in black and a scarf upon our hats and
white scarf on our shoulders and give gold rings and have sprigs of rosemary in our
hands and ring bells. How can you say we bury our people like dogs because we cannot
bury them after the vain pomp and glory of the world. All ground is Gods ground
and to consecrate any ground is unnecessary.
In 1673, David Powell and son, David, gave land in the parish of Llandegley.
A document was signed by John Lewis, Glascwm, Robert Watkins, Llanfihangel Rhydithon,
Edward Morgan, Llanbister, David James, Llandegley and John Davies, Newchurch. The
burial ground became known as Pales, the name may be corrupted from the Welsh word
Palis, meaning steep of the rock, however a document dated 9th January 1694 states:
One parcel of land paled or fenced in roundabout called by the name of A Burying
place… about A quarter of an acre more or less.
This suggests that Pales is a description of a place which is fenced,
Quakers were buried here before the meeting house was built.
In 1681, William Penn had been awarded a vast tract of land in America and
many Dissenters were keen to emigrate. Wealthy Quakers purchased 30,000 acres which
they called the Welsh Tract.
Richard Davies of Welshool bought 5,000 acres and sold in smaller lots to
Quakers in mid Wales; including fourteen from Radnorshire:
Richard Corn – Glover from Llangunllo (50 acres).
Richard Cooke – Glover from Llangunllo (100 acres).
John Evens – Gentleman from Nantmel (100 acres).
Roger Hughes – Gentleman from Llanfihangel Rhydithon (250 acres)
David James – Mariner from Glascwm (100 acres).
Margaret James – Spinster from Newchurch (200 acres).
Edward Jones – Gentleman from St. Harmon (250 acres).
Ellis Jones – Weaver from Nantmel (100 acres).
Thomas Jones – Gentleman from Glascwm (100 acres).
David Kinsey – Carpenter from Nantmel (100 acres).
John Lloyd – Glover from Disserth (100 acres).
David Meredith – Weaver from Llanbister (100 acres).
Richard Miles – Weaver from Llanfihangel Heligen (100 acres).
Evan Oliver – Gentleman from Glascwm (200 acres).
Although Quakers accepted persecution without retaliation, they did not
accept persecution in silence and they began to record their sufferings. They felt
it was their duty to expose their oppressors by recording and publishing this information.
In 1676, they began to hold Meetings for Sufferings in London to make representations
to the Assize Judges at Westminster Hall. In 1682, London Yearly Meeting asked the
representatives from each quarterly meetings to reply to these three questions:
1) What Friends in the ministry, in their respective counties, departed this life
since the last Yearly Meeting?
2) What Friends imprisoned for their testimony have died in prison since the last
3) How the Truth has prospered among them since the last yearly meeting and how
Friends are in peace and unity?
Knowing the Quaker testimony against oaths, officers frequently asked Quakers to
swear the Oath of Allegiance:
29. 2Mo 1683
Friends of Radnorshire assembled at one of their Monthly Meetings of church affairs
in the parish of Llandegley. John Davies, High Sheriff of the County with his Deputy
James Price came into the house where one was kneeling at prayer. The Deputy and
Constable charged them all in the Kings name to go with them and forbore laying hands
on them till the conclusion of their Meeting; and then the High Sheriff swore many
Oaths that they should go with him; But it not appearing that he had any Warrant,
one of the Friends questioned his authority. This made him angry, and he took the
person and pulled him out by the arm; the Constables and officers forced him with
the rest to a neighbouring Alehouse where they shut them up in a room and set a guard
In the meantime, the High Sheriff rode three miles to fetch Edward Davies, a Justice
of the Peace, his Kinsmen, to his assistance. Being returned, they examined them
for their names and habitations, and told them, there was to be a process against
them and so continued them sitting up all night with a guard in very cold weather,
and early next morning the Sheriff sent seven of them over the bleak hills to prison,
namely: John Lloyd, Hugh Lloyd, Edward Jones, Roger Hughes, Henry Cleaton, Anne
Cleaton, Amy Phillips. Two others Nathan Woodliff and Thomas Humphrey were by warrant
next morning carried before the said Edward Davies to answer such things as should
be objected against them.
But he not knowing how to proceed ordered them to continue in the Constables custody
and to be brought again before him at Knighton about a week after; when Samuel Powell,
another Justice, being with him, they fined Owen Humphrey ₤20 as a preacher, for
praying at meeting: And at the same time committed them both to prison for refusing
to take the Oath of Allegiance. At the next Sessions the oath was tendered to the
other seven also and all of them were remanded to prison.
1684 – In the Month called May, Peter Price had been a Prisoner above three Years,
at the suite of Robert Lucy, Impropriator, on Judgment of the Court of Great Sessions
against him for not paying Tithes: He continued Prisoner above three Years after,
being eightysix Years of Age. In the last mentioned Month also, John Watson, Robert
Watson and David John Phillips, had been imprisoned a Year and three Quarters in
Presteign Gaol on Writs de Excommunicato Capiendo.
Although traveling lawfully on the highway, Publick Friends, acting as
itinerant preachers, were often arrested and charged under the Vagrancy Acts. A
statute of 1597, permitted rogues, beggars, and vagabonds to be flogged, both men
and women. Quakers were often asked to swear an Oath of Allegiance, refusal was
judged as contempt.
Whereas the Persons that stand convicted by the Name of Evan David, of the Parish
of Newchurch in the County of Radnor, Yeoman, John Evans in the Parish of Nantmel
in the said County of Radnor, Carpenter, and John Lloyd in the Parish of Disserth
in the County of Radnor, Glover, being apprehended as Strangers and Vagabonds and
not only found without Pass or Testimonial, but justly suspect to be Persons disaffected
to the present Government of the Realm, and to the Protestant Religion as it is by
Law established and being by the Constables of Llandewy brought before us, whose
Names are subscribed, being Justices of the Peace in the said County; and the said
Evan David, John Evans and John Lloyd, being not able to give any good Account of
themselves, and contemptuously refusing to take the Oath of Allegiance, being lawfully
tendered, according to an Act of Parliament in the third year of King James in that
Case made and provided.
These are therefore. In Pursuance of the said Act, and in the King Majesty’s Name,
to will and command you to receive into your said Gaol the bodies of Evan David,
John Evans and John Lloyd, and them to keep in safe Manner until they shall be released
by the Course of his said Majesty’s Laws: Hereof fail you not as you will answer
the Contrary at your Perils.
Given under Hands and Seals the 10th. Day of June 1688.
Thomas Gwynne, Roger Minwaring
The Toleration Act of 1689 gave Dissenters freedom to worship, but they
were denied admission to universities and were unable to enter the professions. Refusal
to swear on oath also denied Quakers any opportunity in public service and their
energies were channeled into business and industry. Two political parties were beginning
to evolve; Whigs and Tories, Tories supported King James II and his successors, whilst
Whigs supported William III, the Glorious Revolution, Parliament, and the Protestant
faith. Their policies were defined as laissez faire; maintenance of order, defence
of the country, less control in religion, agriculture, commerce, industry, and shipping.
As a result, religion became less controversial and fewer people attended church
George Fox returned to London on Monday 29th October 1690:
And for a fortnight in the course of his usual activities he attended meetins on
Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays and Sundays. On the second Sunday, he was at Gracechurch
Street Meeting where ‘he declared a long time very preciously and very audibly and
went to prayer’. But after meeting, returning to the house of Henry Gouldney in
the adjacent White Hart Court, he complained of cold, went to bed, grew worse, and
finally expired… on Tuesday. No physician was present and no medication taken.
On Friday, the body was carried to Friends Burial Ground, Chequers Alley,
Bunhill Fields, Clerkenwell.
Leadership of the Quakers passed to George Whitehead, a former schoolmaster
and one of the Valiant Sixty. Although they were able to build meeting houses and
worship in accordance with their beliefs, Quakers no longer felt they could change
the nation. All Dissenters had lost members and there was little appetite for proselytizing,
but other denominations established academies to train ministers and this provided
leadership for the future. The first generation of Quakers had considerable knowledge
of the Bible and theology; but many had died during persecution. To ensure survival,
the existing leadership decided to re-enforce a strict code of behaviour with rigid
church rules. This separated Quakers from their neighbours, by their speech, by
their style of clothes, and their denial of the arts. Quakers were discouraged from
having their portraits painted, playing musical instruments or attending theatre.
Quakers gave thanks for a stable society and the benefits of improved
conditions; they began to acquire wealth and donated money to Quaker funds. Quakers
were able to build meeting houses, establish schools and purchase land, they also
had funds for poor Friends. Administration of these funds required trustees to determine
eligibility for relief. Only a few of the early Quakers had been wealthy and many
suffered imprisonment, formal membership was not a requirement then, but it became
necessary now in order to identify genuine members.
In our tender and Christian advice that Friends take care to keep to truth and plainness,
in language, habit, deportment and behaviour; that the simplicity of truth in these
things may not wear out nor be lost in our days, nor in our posterity’s; and to avoid
pride and immodesty in apparel, and all vain and superfluous fashions of the world.
Margaret, the widow of George Fox, wrote to a friend in 1700:
Let us beware of this, of separating or looking upon ourselves to be more holy than
in deed and in truth we are; … and not be entangled again into bondage, in observing
prescriptions in outward things, which will not profit nor cleanse the inward man.
Failure to uphold their testimonies would lead to disownment; joining the
militia, scandal, bankruptcy, drunkenness, and fornication, the most common reason,
among young Quakers, was marriage to a non-Quaker in a church.
The Yearly Meeting for Wales in 1695 was held at the home of Roger Hughes
of Tregriggan, a farm near Dollau. Since 1668, Meetings were usually held in the
home of a Quakers family and those attending sought lodgings in nearby inn. By the
early years of the eighteenth century, the Yearly Meeting had a large attendance
of members with lectures open to the general public.
By the end of the seventeenth century, 2,000 men, women and children from
Wales had emigrated to the American colonies, not all were Quakers, but concern was
expressed at the Yearly Meeting held at Rhayader in 1698 and minute was circulated:
And moreover we being under a deepe sence and Considrion that some friends by their
irregular, disorderly and unsavoury proceedings and runnings into Pennylvania having
been a Cause of great weakening if not the total decayeing of some meetings in the
Dominion of Wales….
Welsh was still the common language of Radnorshire, and could be heard
in business meetings and meetings for worship, but very few pamphlets were written
in Welsh. In 1682, the yearly Meeting at Redstone, Pembrokeshire, had agreed to
publish in Welsh:
This day it was layed before the Meeting concerning the Good Service of translating
books into Welch…
This item was discussed again in 1702 at the Yearly Meeting held in Llanidloes,
also, the concern for isolated Quakers:
This meeting doth recommend to ye several Quarterly and Monthly Meetings: that they
be careful (at least once a year) to choose such friends as may be approved by the
said meetings to visit several families.
In 1743, a visitor to Aberedw noted: that all spoke Welsh; but the churchwardens’
Visitation Returns for 1820 stated: Welsh is never used in our church services,
The Revd Jonathan Williams writing in the mid – nineteenth century regretted
the decline of the Welsh language:
… in the year 1747, that in all its churches Divine Service was performed in that
tongue alone. So great a revolution has since taken place, that the church of St.
Harmon, situated in a remote and sequested corner of the county, the inhabitants,
of which have little or no direct intercourse with England remains in the present
day, the only one in which Christian worship is celebrated, and religious instruction
dispensed in the aboriginal language of Britain.
Yearly Meeting for Wales was held at New Radnor in 1717; Thomas Story, a
recorded minister, was on the arrangements Committee. He was surprised when the
local priest, who owned a suitable barn, agreed to his request to hire the building.
Thomas Story described the priest as a moderate good natured man who told him:
Since we preach Christ, and endeavoured to reform People, and aim’d at the Honour
of God, he could not refuse it, though he expected Censure for it from his own People.
After Yearly Meeting, Thomas Story rode to Brynllwyd, a farm near the village
of Hundred House, the home of widow Margaret Price, and met other Quakers at this
isolated farm. When Thomas Story returned to New Radnor the following day, he met
many people who had traveled on this day, market day, to attend the Yearly Meeting.
Not wishing to disappoint them, he arranged a special meeting at the priests’ barn,
but when some of the local magistrates heard of this arrangement, they suggested
the town hall would be more suitable. He applied and was allowed to hold the meeting
here and because of the large numbers gathered, two meetings were held that same
evening. Both were well attended and Thomas Story thought it had been a successful
In 1753, William Brown, a Publick Friend from Philadelphia, took a guided
tour through south and mid Wales with his traveling companion John Player. They
visited Quakers in the counties of Monmouth, Glamorgan, Carmarthen, Montgomery, Ceredigion
and Radnor. After leaving John and Mary Goodwin at their home at Esgairgoch, near
Staylittle, Montgomeryshire, William Brown and companion traveled to Llanidloes where
they had refreshments with Friends. They rode to Talcoed, Gwystre, where they held
a meeting for worship with Edward Thomas and local Friends. Regular meetings were
held in this farm house and it is thought Qukers were buried in the nearby dell.
The following day, Thomas Lloyd of The Cwm, in the parish of Llanfaredd, escorted
the two visitors to his home, where another meeting for worship was held. William
Brown urged local Quakers to continue with their week-day meetings.
Quakers in Wales suffered another serious decline in the late eighteenth
century when many of their members joined the Methodist evangelical revival. Local
meetings were closed and several monthly meetings were unable to fulfil their duties.
They were obliged to join with English monthly and quarterly meetings and Welsh
language ceased to be part of worship or business. Goods were still seized for non
payment of tithes, but it is interesting to compare fines imposed on Quakers in 1660
with fines imposed in 1796. The fines imposed in Llandegley parish seem less punitive
than the fines imposed in Llananno. The value of the goods taken by warrant in 1796
is closer to the market value.
Radnorshire Sufferings, Llandegley Parish. The 5 Month 1796.
Rees Bowen had Taken from him by Virtue of a Warrant from Thomas Jones and John Davies
Justices at the Complaint of Davies Morgan agent to James Phillips, Priest of Llandegley
and by Edward Lloyd Constable.
Six Ewes and Lambs Valued at £2.18.0d
For a demand for tithe of £2.17.0d
Constable Charge 1.6d
Also Owen Jones had taken from him by Virtue of the warrant and Constable.
1 beast valued at £1.10.0d
For a demand for tithe of £1.13.0d
Constables Charge 1.6d
Also Samuel Hughes had taken from him by Virtue of the said Warrant and Constable.
2 bushels and half of Wheat valued at £1. 7.6d
For a demand for the tithe of £1. 8.0d
Constables Charge 1.6d
Signed at Our Monthly Meeting held at the Pales the 14 of the 4 Month 1797.
By Rees Bowen.
MAES YR HELEM in the parish of Llananno is thought to be the site of
the first Quaker meeting house and burial ground in the county:
About one mile north west from Crychallt, the family seat of Evan Stephens, Esq.
stands a conventicle belonging to the religious denomination of Baptists, called
the New Chapel, erected in the year 1805, on the spot where formally the Society
of Friends, or Quakers, had a meeting house and burial ground attached.
On the decline of the latter society, and the remaining members of which having abandoned
the place, the former took possession of the ground and founded thereon a neat chapel;
which in the year 1814, was endowed by Mr. Williams of Maers yr helem in this parish,
with several acres of excellent meadow land on the bank of the river Ieithon.
Members of the Stephens family were Quakers: Thomas, the son of Stephen
and Mary Stephens of Reedlean, married Anne Williams at Jamestown Meeting House,
Pembrokeshire, July 1771 and is recorded in the Pembrokeshire Monthly Meeting Minutes.
The opinion of Jonathan Williams was later challenged by the Revd John
It is strange that there is nothing said in the account given me of the origin of
the Baptists cause at Measyrhelem of the society of Friends having a chapel and burial
LLANOLEY, a farm in the parish of Newchurch held Quaker meetings in the
seventeenth century. It is said that Mary Bevan was taken from this farm to Presteign
Gaol and Anne Thomas, at the age of eighty, was held in custody at Presteigne and
reported that she was content with her sufferings. Margaret James and Samuel Miles
from Llanfihangel Helygen were married at Llanoley, before emigrating to Pennsylvania.
Frances Beavan, a widow living in this parish bequeathed:
20 shillings to the Meeting of people called Quakers in Radnorshire.
A lease of 999 years was signed 8 October 1714 for a parcel of land, one
sixth of an acre, at Llanoley: The document was signed by Nathan Woodliffe, elder
and Nathan Woodliffe, younger, to Hugh Phillip Griffiths, John Jones and others.
Elizabeth Beavan requested:
To be buried in the ground of the Quakers at Almeley or Llanoley in the parish of
In addition to bequests to her family, there were several to Quakers:
20/- to Elizabeth Price, daughter of Margaret Price of Brynllwyd in the Parish of
Glascwm. 20/- each to Elizabeth and Sarah, daughters of Nathan Woodliffe. 20/-
to Joan, daughter of Griffith Jones of Llandewy Vach. £4 to John Jones, Thomas Price,
John Woodliffe to be employed by them in good service to Quaker people.
Thomas Woodliffe of Cregrina left instructions in his will for timber to
be taken from his farm to fence the burial ground at Llanoley.
The small unmarked burial ground is in the field in front of the house;
the last person to be buried here was Mararet Pugh, aged 91; her death was recorded
21st December 1831.
William Lloyd visited Llanoley and gave a report to Hereford & Radnor Monthly
Meeting held at Hereford on 11th September 1860:
The owner appeared willing for Friends to resume possession on condition that the
fences should be made and kept good, and I proposed that she should agree to pay
Friends 1/- for access as an acknowledgement in which she made no objection. The
12 yards of fence down will require… posts and rails and also a bridle gate for an
HAY ON WYE, although not in the county, this meeting was a member of Radnor
Monthly Meeting. They held meetings in various buildings from the eighteenth century
until 1890. Three buildings were licensed by Brecon Quarter Sessions in 1765, Swan
Inn, a barn at the rear of Red Lion Inn and George Inn. In 1833, a meeting house
was built in the garden of the Trusted family home, 4 Bridge Street.
It is suggested that Quakers were buried in this garden, but not proven.
A daughter of Benjamin Trusted, Sarah Ann, died 8th July 1844, and is buried at
Almeley Quaker Burial Ground, Herefordshire. The Religious Census of 1851 referred
to a meeting house which seated 40 people. The property was sold to Hereford & Brecon
Railway in 1864 and the meeting house was later demolished. A window, taken from
the meeting house, was fitted into 4 Bridge Street. Meetings continued at Lidiat
y Wain, Cusop, Herefordshire, two miles from Hay, but ceased in 1890 when the owner,
Charles J Lilwall resigned from the Society of Friends and joined the Church of England.
Members in the nineteenth century included the families of Howells, Wilmot,
Trusted, Enoch, and Swetman. Thomas Howells married Susannah Beasley of Islington
and they moved to Hay in 1776. He started a business as watch & clock maker; later,
he became a woolen manufacturer and built his own machinery. Although Thomas and
Susannah were closely associated with Quakers in Hay, they never became members and
their children were baptized in the parish church, but he did encourage them to join
the Quakers. They had eleven children, but only four survived into adulthood. Susannah
died 1819 and Thomas died 1824, they are buried in the parish church grounds. William
Enoch, draper & mercer, married Deborah Swetman, grand-daughter of Thomas and Susannah
William Wilmot, a local baker, had three sons and two daughters. Benjamin
Trusted was Clerk of the North Wales Monthly Meeting, Benjamin and his wife and seven
children, two sons and five daughters. Benjamin was part owner of the horses that
pulled trams on the local tramway, he was also a woolen manufacturer. In 1842, he
was criticized by Monthly Meeting for paying rent charge, then regarded by Quakers
as a tithe.
PALES, in 1716, deeds were drawn up for the existing dwelling to be
used by the:
People called Quakers or their Friends… to assemble and meet for religious worship
provided the civil magistrates permit them, and the land is for use of same Quakers.
John Lloyd & Howell Lloyd of Llanfareth, and Thomas Price of Brynllwyd on behalf
of the Qurterly Meeting of Radnor.
It is not known if monumental stones were in the burial ground at this
time, but they had been erected in some areas, and a minute from the London Yearly
Meeting in 1717 reminded Quakers of the vain custom of erecting monuments:
By stones, inscriptions etc. it is therefore the advice of this meeting that all
such monuments should be removed, as much as may be with discretion.
This advice was repeated several times which suggests that not all meeting
complied with the original request. In 1850, London Yearly Meeting agreed that headstones
could be erected. All monumental stones were to be of uniform size, with only name,
date of death and age inscribed; this would ensure there was no distinction between
rich and poor in a Quaker burial ground. Later, when floral tributes became a feature
of funerals, Quakers were reminded not to encourage needless expense of wreaths as
this was inconsistent with Christian simplicity.
When he was a young man, John Griffiths emigrated to Pennsylvania and
returned to Radnorshire in 1747; he held many meetings in Wales. Later, he married
and settled in Essex. He wrote The Journal of John Griffiths, life, travels and
labours…Published in 1799. Many Publick Friends visited this meeting house, including
Abiah, wife of Abraham Darby, ironmaster of Coalbrookdale, and Deborah, wife of Samuel,
son of Abraham. Joh Eddy, Rebecca Collins and Thomas Wells from America; Johnathan
Grubb, Frank Dymond, Joshua Newman, Hannah Burlingham, Matilda Hickman and many others
from English Meetings.
Barnard Dickinson of Coalbrookdale, nephew of Deborah Darby, husband
of Ann Darby, a niece of Samuel Darby, became a frequent visitor to Pales; he purchased
the neighbouring farm of Rhonllwyn.
Six years after his death in 1858, it was sold by his son, William, of
Shepherd Bush, Middlesex, Gentleman, to the tenant Richard Beversley Watkins. Several
members of the Watkins family were members of the Pales Meeting; brother Thomas of
Dollau, sisters Susannah Wilding of Llangullo and Ann Morris of Llanbister.
PENYGRAIG, in the parish of Llanbadarn y garreg was the home of the Southall
family in the eighteenth century and the Radnor Monthly Meeting was sometimes held
here. Their daughter, Sophia, married Peter Edwards at Pales in 1798. Initially,
they farmed Penygraig, but later moved to Pentre.
BRYNLLWYD, a farm near Hundred House was associated with Quakers, many Publick
Friends visited; Anne Southall and John Drew were married here in 1715. The Radnor
Monthly Meeting and Monmouth and Radnor Quarterly Meeting were held here. Brynllwyd
was left to Sophia Edwards by her mother Sarah Southall (nèe Price) who inherited
the farm when her brother, Thomas Price died. Sophia’s son, Peter Norman Edwards
lived and farmed here before moving to Walton Court.
PENTRE, in the parish of Cascob, was the home of Peter and Sophia Edwards,
the family had farmed here for several generations. Peter died 9th June 1833, aged
63, Sophia died 21st November 1839, aged 76. Both are buried at Pales.
WALTON MEETING, meetings for worship were held in a brick summerhouse
in the garden of a cottage, adjacent to Walton Court. It was a Particular Meeting
between 1844 and 1872, in 1863, five men and six women were members. Most of the
members belonged to the Edwards family. The village school, which was supported
by the Lewis family of Harpton Court, closed in 1885. There are no Quaker records
to support a suggestion that William Wordsworth attended meetings for worship here,
although he did visit Hindwell several times when his brother in law, Thomas Hutchinson,
was the tenant. Hindwell was part of the Lewis Estate; the lease of the 350 acre
farm was taken by Hutchinson, on Lady Day (25th March) 1809.
HINDWELL, when William Wordsworth visited in 1812, he learnt of the sudden
death of his young daughter Catherine. Both parents were away from their home and
Catherine was left in the care of her aunt, Dorothy Wordsworth at Grasmere. Catherine’s
mother, Mary, was at Hindwell and William joined them after visiting Coleridge in
London. Following a dispute over rent in 1824, Thomas Hutchinson moved to Brinsop
Court, Herefordshire, then owned by the family of the late David Ricardo of Gatcombe
Park, Gloucestershire, a former Member of Parliament and political economist.
William Edwards became tenant, he married Mary Ann Dixon at Friends Meeting
House, Worcester, 23 August 1832. He purchased extra land and became a noted breeder
and cattle dealer. William and Mary had four children and Louisa Jenkins, aged 28,
is recorded in the 1851 Census, as their governess.
Arthur, their son, 28 years old, died tragically, 7 November 1861; he
was found dead with gunshot wounds and is buried at Pales:
The corpse was removed as soon as possible, and the sight as the body was borne along
to his home presented a spectacle at once horrifying and dreadful. The deceased
was about thirty years of age. He had for some time been at Malvern for the benefit
of his health, and was about to go hither again. For some time he had been in very
low spirits, but we do not hear this was so evident to excite any apprehension on
the part of his relatives. An inquest has been since held before the coroner for
Radnor, and a respectable jury. Several witnesses were examined; and the jury, after
the coroner had summed up, returned a verdit of ‘felo de se’.
Frances married Edwin Pease, at Ross on Wye Meeting House, 1st October
1862. Edwin was an Iron-master and member of an influential and wealthy Quaker family
from Darlington. A relative, Joseph Pease, was elected to Parliament in 1832 and
became the first member to affirm rather than take the oath.
Emily married Sidney Cooper of Walthamstow at Pales on 3rd October 1866.
Sidney’s father, a hat manufacturer came from Walthamstow. Sydney became an auctioneer
in Worcestershire. Ann died in 1871, age 36, the same year as her father.
WALTON COURT, Peter Norman Edwards married Rebecca Shipley on 15 May 1835,
and her sister Eliza Shipley, married Jesse Sessions on the same day at Friends Meeting
House, Gloucester. Peter farmed at Brynllwyd, owned by his mother, but later, moved
to Walton Court. When Thomas Hutchinson retired from Brinsop Court in 1845, Peter
Edwards took the tenancy and remained there until his death in 1866. Brynllwyd,
the farm which he had inherited from his mother was sold after his death.
BRINSOP COURT, is six miles north-west of Hereford, a twelfth century moated
manor house. William Wordsworth and his family visited Brinsop Court and attended
the parish church of St George; relatives and servant are buried here. Members of
the Edwards family are also buried here, which suggests they joined the Church. In
1879, the Revd Robert Kilvert lunched at the vicarage and afterwards, walked to Brinsop
Court, where he met a grand olf Quaker lady, mother of the tenant.
Two sons became successful auctioneers in Hereford, Messrs Alfred & Dearman
Edwards. After the death of Alfred, the firm joined HFRussell and became Edwards
& Russell. Two years later, they joined Messrs Cooper & Baldwin, eventually they
became Russell, Baldwin, & Bright.
The Yearly Meeting of Wales was established in 1668 with three Quarterly
Meetings; South Wales, Monmouth, and North Wales. Pales was a Particular Meeting
of Radnor Monthly Meeting which was established in 1668. Radnor joined Monmouth
in 1761 to form Monmouth and Radnor Quarterly Meeting. It ceased in 1792 and the
two montly meetings joined South Wales Quarterly Meeting. From 1736 until 1764,
particular meetings in an area of Ceredigion were in Radnor Monthly Meeting.
The Hardwick Act of 1753, recognized Quaker marriages held in a meeting
house, but both parties were required to be members. Because of problems experienced
in the seventeenth century, Quakers devised an elaborate procedure before giving
their approval to a proposed marriage. They required the cosent of next of kin,
marriage between cousins was banned, and there would be several meetings over many
months before a monthly meeting gave approval. All members present at a marriage
ceremony would sign the certificate. Many young Quaker couples became impatient
with this procedure, they eloped and married before a priest. When a Quaker decided
to marry aperson who was not in membership, the marriage could only be undertaken
by a priest of the Church of England, and this also would lead to disownment.
Disownment was not excommunication and disowned members could still attend
meetings for worship, but could not participate in business meetins or receive financial
help. Some members did recant and after making a public statement confessing their
misdemeanour, membership would be restored. But few Quakers who married in church
sought to restore their membership and the Society of Friends suffered a serious
decline. It is estimated that there were 60,000 Quakers in 1680, and from an unofficial
census in 1840, the estimate was 16,000. Most were disowned in the eighteenth century
and only a small number joined by convincement.
By the end of the eighteenth century, many Quakers had acquired considerable
wealth and their testimonies which inflamed people earlier, seemed quaint and no
longer aroused hostility. Quakers were now happy to co-exist with other denominations
and many began to take an active role in public life.
They became involved in social concerns such as education, prison reform,
anti-slavery, and they served on committees with members of other denominations.
Some Quakers began to question the literal interpretation of the Old Testament which
glorifed war and seemed inconsistent with the Quaker Peace Testimony; members, thought
to have links with Unitarians were disowned. Other Friends began to stress the importance
of Scriptures, Isaac Crewdson, and evangelical, questioned the Quaker belief in the
Inner Light. This caused a serious rift in 1835 and over 300 evangelical Quakers
In 1832, Half Yearly Meeting for Wales joined Hereford and Worcester Quarterly
Meeting and became Hereford, Worcester and Wales General Meeting. Radnor Monthly
Meeting joined North Wales Monthly Meeting in 1829, and in 1834, North Wales Monthly
Meeting joined Leominster and Ross Monthly Meeting to form Hereford and Radnor Monthly
The Queries from London Yearly Meeting began in 1682 and were extended
in 1694 and 1700; they now included aspects of behaviour. Replies to specific Queries
from Hereford and Radnor Monthly Meeting, held on 23rd February 1841 at Hereford
Min 7 – With some exception as to shooting in one of our meetings and the attendance
of places of diversion in another, nothing appears but that friends avoid all vain
sports, and places of diversion, gaming, all unnecessary frequenting of taverns,
and other public houses, excess in drinking and other intemperance. Some advice
appears to have been given against attending places of diversion.
Min 8 – With the exception of a friend having paid a sum under the name of rent charge
in lieu of tithe, we believe friends bear a faithful and Christian testimony against
paying tithes, priests demands, and those called Church rates, no one is entitle
to receive tithes.
A reply to Queries from Monthly Meeting held on the 29th March 1842 at
Min 2 – Not withstanding the state of things is low amongst us, we believe there
are some who experience a little growth in the truth.
Despite their declining membership, the Monthly Meeting imposed high standards on
applicants for membership. From the minutes of the Monthly Meeting held at Ross
on 22nd August 1844:
Min 3 – We, your Committee appointed to visit Susan Wilding upon her application
to be received into membership report that we have had five interviews with her.
We found her in a serious state of mind and believements be in measure convinced
of our religious principals.
We feel that under the circumstances of her case she has a strong claim on the kind
care and sympathy of friends, and we desire that she may be encouraged faithfully
to persevere in what she believes to be right, but we do not after solidly considering
the subject feel satisfied to recommend that she should at this time be received
into our Religious Society.
Signed on behalf of the Committee. Thos. Evans
Membership continued to decline with resignations and disownments, some
related to behaviour and financial mismanagement, but most were because a member
married a person not in membership. A minute from Monthly Meeting held on 24th September
1844 at Hereford:
The friends appointed to draw up a Testimony against William Gilkes have sent in
the following to which this meeting with small alteration agrees, and adopts the
same, the Clerk is desired to forward him a copy. William Gilkes a member of this
meeting having suffered himself to become attached to a young woman not a member
of our Religious Society, conforming with our rules a Committee was appointed to
visit him. Notwithstanding the advice which they extended to him he continued the
intimacy, very much withdrew himself from the attendance of our meetings and ultimately
has been married to the same individual in a manner contrary to the rules of our
Society, under these circumstances we feel ourselves called upon to testify against
such conduct by disuniting William Gilkes from membership in our Religious Society
and he is disunited accordingly.
Still we fee a lively interest in his welfare, and entreat him to strive after the
substance of true religion and should he hereafter feel it to be required of him
to seek for reinstatement in membership with us, we would encourage him to take up
the cross and submit… and believe it would tend to the peace of his own mind.
Susan Wilding was admitted into membership on the 25th August 1846. This
Friend is probably Susannah Wilding of Pennycawdd, Llangunllo, sister of Richard
B Watkins of Rhonllwyn. Susannah, from a Quaker family, married John Wilding in
1838, who was an active member of the Primitive Methodists. Hannah died in 1894,
age 85 years and John died the following year, both are buried at Pales.
A marriage arranged in accordance with Quaker procedure was probably more
stressful than disownment. From the minutes of the Monthly Meeting on the 8th June
Min 2 – The friends appointed report that the needful notice of Lucy Smart Trusted’s
intended marriage with William Henry Richardson has been given, the other particulars
contained in Rule 4… Book of Discipline complied with, and that no objection has
We have also received a certificate from Newcastle Monthly Meeting held at Sunderland
on 12 of the last month which has been read informing us that the rules of Yearly
Meeting relating to William Henry Richardson have been complied with, and that no
objection has been made to his proceeding to his intending marriage with Lucy Smart
Trusted. Certificates from Ross and Sunderland giving of due notice having been
given have also been produced. We therefore set the parties at liberty to proceed
to the accomplishment of their intended marriage and appoint Thos. Evans and Henry
Newman to attend it, and see it is conducted according to the good order established
amongst us, they are to report to our next meeting.
After 1837, a civil marriage ceremony was introduced which could remove
the problem of marriage to a non Quaker, but many members objected to this ceremony
because it was not a religious ceremony where a couple made their declaration before
God. In 1856, Yorkshire Quarterly Meeting proposed that members should not be disowned
for marrying a non member, but it was not until 1859 that Yearly Meeting agreed.
In 1857, Joseph Sturge, a Birmingham Friend suggested that matters of dress and
speech should now be optional. Yearly Meeting agreed to a complete revision of procedures
of discipline and this was completed in 1861.
Early Quakers had joined an egalitarian movement that was feared by gentry
and aristocrats, but many of their descendants were now wealthy and probably had
an affinity with them. Their children would meet them and by the nineteenth century,
many had married into these families and left the Quaker community. Two grand-daughters
of Deborah Darby married priests of the Church of England.
Another member of the Darby family, Alfred, had a large country estate
in Shropshire, both he and his wife were members of the Church of England and contributed
considerable funds to the parish church.
With a declining membership in such an isolated area as Radnorshire, young
Quakers had problems in meeting suitable partners. Elsewhere, they had greater opportunities,
they probably attended a Quaker school and would know many young friends, they could
travel easily to their monthly and quarterly meetings, and to London Yearly Meeting.
In Radnorshire, social activities were restricted, although earlier, in a larger
Quaker community, suitable marriages were arranged.
By the mid nineteenth century, there were only two small Quaker meetings
in Radnorshire, Pales and Walton. The Religious Census of 1851 recorded 16 people
attended the morning meeting for worship at Pales. In 1860, Stanley Pumphrey wrote:
Within the memory of many, there was here a flourishing congregation. Now the Meeting
can hardly be said to exist. One infirm, lane old man, still crosses the hills at
the hour of worship to sit there alone with God.
The Hereford and Radnor Monthly Meeting Tabular Statement for 1860 listed
The Quaker Evangelical Revival began in 1876 when Yardley Warner, an American
Friend, was appointed schoolmaster at Pales. He began his Tent Meetins on Penybont
Common which attracted many local people. After he returned to America, other Quaker
Missioners continued his work and by the end of the century, Quaker Chapels had been
built in Penybont, Llanyre and Llandrindod Wells. These were programmed meetings,
similar to other nonconformist services, and Quakers became a major denomination
in the area around Llandrindod. Few of these new members participated in the monthly
or quarterly meetings of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), or accepted
their liberal ideas, but their lives had been transformed.
CSPQ: A Collection of the Sufferings of the People Called Quakers, Volume 1 [1650-1689],
CPF: Christian faith and practice in the experience of the Society of Friends, 1961.
GFJ: George Fox’s Journal, edited by John Nickalls.
QFP: Quaker Faith and Practice, 1995.
Almeley Woonton Burial Ground: OS Sheet 148 SO 334 599.
Brinsop Church: OS Sheet 148 SO 442 448.
Brinsop Court: OS Sheet 148 SO 445 458.
Brynllwyd OS Sheet 148 SO 124 539.
Hay Meeting House: OS Sheet 148 SO 228 425.
Hindwell: OS Sheet 148 SO 258 608.
Llanoley Burial ground: OS Sheet 148 SO 197 499.
Llanyre Burial Ground: OS Sheet SO 007 625.
Maes Yr helem: OS Sheet 147 SO 087 765.
Pales: OS Sheet 149 SO 138 641.
Pentre: OS Sheet 148 SO 243 665.
Penygraig: Sheet 148 SO 112 455.
Talcoed: OS Sheet 147 SO 066 660.
Walton Court: OS Sheet 148 SO 258 599.
1 CFP 165
2 GFJ, p.11.
3 The early Quaker missionaries were from Westmoreland and neighbouring counties.
The actual numbers were 54 men and 12 women; most of the men were engaged in farming,
plus 8 tradesmen, 2 soldiers, and 8 from the professional class. The women included
4 wives and sister of yeomen, a wife and sister of shopkeepers, 2 female gentry,
and 3 maids.
4 Keith Parker, ‘Mid-17th Century Radnorshire’, Transactions of the Radnorshire Society,
1998. Reference to the Llanbister Puritans from Jonathan Williams, The History Radnorshire,
1859, pp 90-93.
5 T Mardy Rees, A History of the Quakers in Wales, 1925, p.497.
6 Edward Burrough, 1659; Husbandman, CPF 165.
7 John Whitehead (1661), a former soldier. WC Braithwaite, The Second Period of
Quakerism, p. 497, quoting from the tract A Small Treatise, which was published again
in 1852 in a pamphlet by Thomas Chalk.
8The Diary of John Evelyn, Volume 1, p. 319.
9 From HD Williams, ‘Miscellanea’ Archaeologia Cambrensis XXXVI, pp.149-150. Burials
from Llanyre are not listed in the Quaker Digest [Burials] c.1650-1837, although
some burials state Radnorshire. Copies of the Quaker Digests for births, marriages,
and deaths are deposited at St Helens Record office, Worcester. A microfilm [X110]
is deposited at Hereford Record Office.
10GFJ pp. 293-4.
11CSPQ p. 742.
13CSPQ p. 742-3.
14CSPQ p. 743.
15GFJ p. 398-403.
16 Samuel Pepys, Diary, 7th August, 1664. WC Braithwaite, The Second Period of Quakerism,
39 GL Fairs, ‘Society of Friends in Hay’, Transactions of the Radnorshire Society,
40 Pales Deeds, 13th July 1716, Powys Archives.
41 RCB Oliver, ‘The [Wordsworth] Hutchinsons in Radnorshire and on the Border’, Transactions
of the Radnorshire Society, Vol XLIX.
42Heredford Journal, 13th November, 1861.
43 Rachel Labourchere, Deborah Darby, pp. xvi and xvii.
44 Peter Davies, Mare’s Milk and Wild Honey, p.6.
45 Henry Newman, Memories of Stanley Pumphrey, p.23.
“And this I declare to all the inhabitants in England and all that dwell upon the
earth, that God alone is the Teacher of His people and hath given to everyone a measure
of grace, which is the light that comes from Christ.” William Dewsbury, 1655